Breytingar á verkaskiptingu á heimili meðal starfandi feðra og mæðra í fyrstu bylgju COVID-19

  • Guðný Björk Eydal
  • Ingólfur V. Gíslason
  • Tómas Bjarnason

Abstract

ÚTDRÁTTUR: COVID-19 hafði í för með sér meiriháttar breytingar á högum fólks. Faraldurinn raskaði atvinnu- og heimilislífi með lokun vinnustaða, aukinni heimavinnu og skertri þjónustu umönnunaraðila. Að frumkvæði Utrecht-háskólans var hrint úr vör fjölþjóðlegri rannsókn sem ber heitið „Gender (In)equality in Times of COVID-19“. Lagður var spurningalisti fyrir foreldra um aðstæður þeirra í launaðri vinnu, skiptingu heimilisstarfa og umönnunar og samþættingu launavinnu og umönnunarábyrgðar, auk fleiri þátta. Á Íslandi var könnunin framkvæmd af Gallup eftir að samkomubanni lauk í kjölfar fyrstu bylgju í maí 2020. Í þessari grein eru áhrif farsóttarinnar á verkaskiptingu starfandi foreldra í sambúð skoðuð hvað varðar umönnun, heimilisstörf og samþættingu launavinnu og umönnunarábyrgðar. Í ljósi erlendra niðurstaðna eru áhrif farsóttarinnar á þessa þætti greind eftir því hvar foreldrar inntu starf sitt af hendi í farsóttinni; hvort þeir unnu fjarvinnu heima eða unnu áfram á vinnustaðnum. Meginniðurstöður sýna að lítill kynbundinn munur kemur fram varðandi það hvort fólk vann fjarvinnu heima eða á vinnustaðnum. Mikill kynbundinn munur kom á hinn bóginn fram hvað varðar umönnun og heimilisstörf, bæði fyrir farsóttina og eftir að hún skall á. Í samræmi við nýlegar erlendar rannsóknir á áhrifum COVID-19 benda niðurstöður til þess að skipting heimilisstarfa milli feðra og mæðra hafi orðið jafnari við faraldurinn: Feður sem unnu heima sem áttu maka sem unnu áfram á vinnustaðnum juku hlutdeild sína í heimilisstörfum og mæður sem unnu á vinnustaðnum en áttu maka sem vann heima drógu úr hlutdeild sinni. Ekki urðu sams konar breytingar á hvernig foreldrar deildu með sér umönnun barna. Samþætting launavinnu og umönnunarábyrgðar varð erfiðari eftir farsóttina og gekk verr hjá foreldrum ungra barna og hjá foreldrum sem unnu heima. Niðurstaða fjölbreytugreiningar sýnir að samþætting launavinnu og umönnunarábyrgðar versnaði sérstaklega meðal mæðra sem unnu fjarvinnu heima og er það í samræmi við erlendar rannsóknir.

LYKILORÐ: COVID-19 – samþætting launavinnu og umönnunarábyrgðar – umönnun – heimilisstörf – fjarvinna

ABSTRACT: COVID-19 brought with it extensive changes in people’s lives. The pandemic disrupted employment and home life, with the closure of workplaces, increased remote work, and reduced services of care givers. At the initiative of Utrecht University, a multinational study entitled “Gender (In) equality in Times of COVID-19” was launched. Data were collected via a questionnaire on the effect of the pandemic on the status of parents in paid work, division of household work, care, and the reconciliation between paid work and care. The survey was conducted in Iceland by Gallup after restrictions on gatherings were lifted following the first wave in May 2020. This article examines the impact of the pandemic on gendered division of working parents with spouses regarding care and housework and reconciliation between paid work and care. In the light of previous research, the impact of the pandemic on these factors is examined depending on where work was performed, whether work was performed remotely from home or in the workplace. The main results show small gender difference in changes in where work was performed (working remotely or at the workplace). Large, gendered differences were, on the other hand, found in care work and housework, both before and after the pandemic. In accordance with recent international research on COVID-19, results suggest that with regards to housework parents became more equal after the pandemic: Fathers who worked from home, but their spouses at the workplace, increased their share of domestic work, while mothers who worked at the workplace, but their spouses worked from home, reduced their share of domestic responsibilities. Similar changes in the division of care between parents were not found. Reconciliation between paid work and care deteriorated with the pandemic, more so among parents of young children and parents who worked at home. Regression analysis shows that reconciliation of paid work and care deteriorated especially among mothers who worked remotely from home. This is in accordance with international research.

KEYWORDS: COVID-19 – reconciliation between paid work and care – care work – domestic work – remote work

Published
2022-12-01
How to Cite
Eydal, G. B., Gíslason, I. V., & Bjarnason, T. (2022). Breytingar á verkaskiptingu á heimili meðal starfandi feðra og mæðra í fyrstu bylgju COVID-19. Íslenska þjóðfélagið, 13(1), 63-82. Retrieved from https://thjodfelagid.is/index.php/Th/article/view/228